Excerpts from Chapter IV of Raymond Bernard's Book, The
Hollow Earth, on the Subject of Gardner's Writings.
Marshall B. Gardner spent twenty years in research, based on the reports of Arctic explorers, supplemented by astronomical evidence, before publishing, in 1920, his great book, "A Journey to the Earth's Interior or Have the Poles Really Been Discovered?" He did not seem to know about Reed's book and theory, so that both men developed their theories independently. Gardner's great contribution is the theory of a central sun, which is the source of the higher temperature in the region of the polar orifice and the aurora borealis, which Reed attributes to volcanic eruptions. A central sun as a source of heat and light makes possible the existence of plant and animal life in the earth's interior, also human life, which Reed believed to be a fact, but could not explain according to his theory, which did not include a central sun as a source of light, without which there could be no life.
Gardner also claims, and in his book presents astronomical evidence to prove, that not only the earth, but all planets of the solar system, lave hollow interiors and central stets, wliicla lie traces to their original formation from a whirling nebula. As a result of centrifugal force, their rotation during their early formation when yet molten caused their heavier constituents to be thrown toward the outside, forming a solid crust on the outer surface of each planet and leaving the interior hollow, while a portion of the original fire remained in the center to form the central sun. Also the force of their rotation and movements through space caused openings to form at their polar extremities.
Why have Reed's and Gardner's books become so rare that it is practically impossible to obtain copies and they are not found in most libraries? Because they prove that there exists a large area not recorded on any map, which is not only equal to, but perhaps greater than the entire land area of the earth's surface this uncharted land area being on the inside of the earth's crust. Naturally any government that learned about this vast territory would have ambitions to be the first to discover it and claim it, for which reason it would make every effort to keep this information secret, so that no other government might learn about it and claim this territory first. Since the United States Government was the first to learn about it as a result of the visit of Admiral Byrd, who flew for 1,700 miles into this "mysterious land beyond the Pole," which is not shown on any map, and saw mountains, forests, green vegetation, rivers, lakes and animals there, we can understand the reason for secrecy and why the books of two American writers Reed and Gardner, were suppressed and forgotten, in order to guard this secret.
EVIDENCE FROM ARCTIC EXPLORATION
Gardner's book is 450 pages in length. With fifty books, chiefly on Arctic exploration, in his bibliography, he was most thorough in his research. Gardner claimed that the earth is a hollow shell approximately 800 miles thick in its crust, with an opening at the polar end approximately 1,400 miles across. He says that the mammoth comes from the interior and is still living there, and the huge tropical animals found frozen in ice in the polar region were not prehistoric but were animals from the interior that came to the surface and were frozen in ice when they did. In support of his theory of a polar opening and a central sun in the hollow interior of the earth, Gardner points out that birds and animals migrate to the north in winter to find warmer weather. He also notes that when explorers go north of 80 degrees north latitude, they find the water to become warmer due to warm currents coming from the polar region, and the air becomes warmer due to warm winds from the north. These cause the open sea, in place of ice, in the extreme north. They also find red pollen on icebergs and glaciers, and find logs and other debris washed ashore by these warm currents from the north. Gardner summarizes the evidence in favor of his theory of a hollow earth with two polar openings and a central sun as follows:
"How do scientists explain the fact that when we go north it becomes colder up to a certain point and then begins to get warm? How do they explain the further fact that the source of this warmth is not any influence from the south but a series of currents of warm water and of warm winds from the north supposed to be a land of solid ice? Where can these currents come from? How could they come from anything else but an open sea? And why should there be a warm open sea at the very place where scientists expect to find eternal ice? Where could this warm water possibly come from?
"Why also should explorers find the inhospitable ice cliffs of the far north covered in large areas with the red pollen of an unknown plant? And why should they find the seeds of tropical plants floating in these waterswhen they are not found in more southern waters? How should logs and branches of trees, sometimes with fresh buds on them be found in these waters, all being borne down by the warm currents from the north?
"Why should the northern parts of Greenland be the world's greatest habitat of the mosquito, an insect which is only found in warm countries? How could it have gotten to Greenland if it came from the south? Where do all the foxes and bares go which are seen traveling north in Greenland? Where did the bears go? Was it
possible that such large creatures as bears could find sustenance on plains of eternal ice?
"How do scientists explain the fact that practically every competent explorer from the earlier days down to Nansen has admitted that when he got to the Far North his theories of what he should find failed to work and his methods of finding his positions also failed to work? How do scientists explain these passages from Nansen which we have quoted, showing that lie was absolutely lost in the Arctic region?
"How do scientists explain the migration of those birds which appear in England and other northern countries one part of the year, in the tropics in another part of the year, but disappear entirely in the winter? How do they explain the fact that neither Peary nor Cook was able to prove the claim of reaching the north pole? Even supposing both men to have acted in good faith is it not obvious that both were lost? How else explain the discrepancies in Peary's own narrative?
"Why, says the reader, did Peary not discover that immense orifice at the polar extremity of the earth if it was there?
"The reason is very simple and can best be explained by asking another question.
"Why did not man discover by looking around him, that he was living on the surface of what is, practically speaking, an immense sphere (to be exact, spheroid) ? And why did man for centuries think that the earth was flat? Simply because the sphere was so large that he could not see the curvature but thought it was a flat surface, and that he should be able to move all over the surface of it appeared so natural that, when scientists first told him it was a sphere he began to wonder why he did not fall off, or at least, if he lived in the Northern Hemisphere, he wondered why the Australians did not fall off for he had no conception of the law of gravity.
"Now, in the case of the polar cxplorers the same thing is true. They sail up to the outer edge of the immense polar opening, but that opening is so vast, considering that the crust of the earth over which it curves is eight hundred miles thick, that the downward curvature of its edge is not perceptible to them, and its diameter is so great about 1,400 miles that its other side is not visible to them. So, if an explorer went far enough he could sail right over that edge, down over the seas of the inner world and out through the Antarctic orifice, and all that would show him what he had done would be that as soon as he got inside he would see a smaller sun than he was accustomed to only to him it might look larger owing to its closeness and he would not be able to take any observations by the stars because there would be neither stars nor even a night in which to see them.
"But, says the reader, would not the force of gravity pull the explorer who got inside the orifice away from the surface into the central sun; for does not gravity pull everything to the center of the earth?
"The answer to this is, that in gravitational pull it is not the geometrical position that counts. Center, in the geometrical sense of the word, does not apply. It is the mass that attracts. And if the great mass of the earth is in its thick shell, it is the mass of that shell that will attract, and not a mere geometrical point which is not in the shell at all, but 2900 miles away from it, as is the approximate distance between the central sun and the inner surface of the earth. As a matter of fact it is the equal distribution of the force of gravity all through the shell that keeps the sun suspended in the spot which is equidistant from every part of the shell. When we are on the outside of the shell it is the mass of the shell that attracts us to its surface. When we go over to the inside of the shell that same force will still keep our feet solidly planted on the inner surface.
"We shall see all that when we explore the Arctic in earnest, as we shall easily be able to do with the aid of airships. And when once we have seen it we shall wonder why it was that for so long we were blind to evidence which, as is shown in this book, has been before men's eyes for practically a whole century and over."
Twenty seven years after Gardner wrote this, Admiral Byrd did exactly what he hoped would be done. He flew by airplane into the north polar opening for 1700 miles and came to a land of trees, as Gardner believed would exist there, and also a warmer climate, as shown by the rivers, lakes, vegetation and animal life he observed there.
Gardner writes: "That the musk ox is not the only animal to be found where we should hardly expect it, is evident from a note in Hayes' diary. When he was in latitude 78 degrees, 17 minutes, early in July, he said: `I secured a yellow winged butterfly, and who would believe it a mosquito. And also ten moths, three spiders, two bees and two flies.' "
Since these insects are not found further south, a land of ice and snow, the only explanation Gardner could offer for their origin is that they came from the interior of the earth through the polar opening.
Hayes' observations of insect life in the extreme north were confirmed by Greely, in his book "Three Years of Arctic Service," describing his observations in the Arctic, begun in 1881. In the preface to his book, Grecly tells us that the wonders of the Arctic regions are so great that he was forced to modify his actual notes made at the time, and understated them rather than lay himself open to the suspicion of exaggerating./That the Arctic regions are so full of life and strange evidence of life farther north, that an explorer cannot describe it without being accused of exaggerating is surely a very strange thing if these regions only lead to a barren land of everlasting lee, as according to older geographical theories.
Greely reports birds of an unknown species, butterflies, flies and temperatures of 47 to 50 degrees, also plenty of willow to make fires, and much fresh driftwood. He found two flowers different from any that he had ever seen.
In many pages of astronomical evidence, Gardner discusses the bright lights seen shining from the polar caps of Mars, Venus and Mercury, and concludes that these planets all have central suns and polar openings. He claims that the earth has the same and that the aurora borealis results from the projection of the rays of the central sun, passing through the polar opening, on the night sky. Gardner summarizes the evidence in favor of his theory as follows:
"As explorers go north of about 80 degrees north latitude, they find that the water, instead of becoming colder in the same ratio in which it had been getting colder as they left the temperate zone, gradually begins to get warm again, and they find that this warmth is brought down from the so called frozen north in a warm current flowing from the polar regions. Furthermore they find that birds and animals migrate to the north to feed and breed, instead of to the south. In fact, when they get into really high latitudes, explorers find a greater wealth of animal and vegetable life than they do in the lower latitudes of the Arctic and sub Arctic regions. And as they are sailing to these northern regions they find, scattered on the icebergs and glaciers, the red pollen of plants that grow where? Only in the interior of the earth. And they find logs and other debris of the land washed down in these warm currents just spoken of. And this is not all. In our chapter on the mammoth and mastodon we shall adduce evidence to show that the mammoth still lives in the interior in fact we shall exhibit case after case where the mammoth has floated out from the interior incased in glaciers and icebergs and has been frozen in crevasses in the interior near the polar openings, and then carried over the lip by glacial movement into Siberia."
In addition to driftwood found in the extreme north, whose origin, according to Gardner, could only be the earth's interior, there are found trees with green buds in the Arctic seas. Seeds of unknown tropical species have also been found drifting down in the northern currents, coming from the north, not the south. Among these was the seed of the entada bean, a tropical seed, which was found by a Swedish expedition near Trurengerg Bay. Gardner comments: "This seed must have come from the interior of the earth, for it is of a tree that only grows under tropical conditions, and it would have been disintegrated had it been drifting all over the world for many months, as would be the case if it had come up from the tropical regions of the exterior of the planet."
Sverdrup found so many bares around 81 degrees North latitude that one inlet was called Hare Fiord. There was also enough other game to keep the whole exploring party well fed with meat.
Captain Beechey saw so many birds on the west coast of Spitzbergen that the place reverberated with their cries from dawn till dark. The little auk were so numerous and so close together that sometimes a single shot killed thirty of them. With sixteen birds to a cubic yard, there were about four million of them. Rotgers were so numerous as to darken the sky, and their chorus could be heard for four miles. There were also reindeer and ducks. There were four varieties of seagulls over the surrounding ocean, plus fish and amphibious animals, front the huge whale to the minute clio on which it fees, swallowing perhaps a million with each mouthful.
Franklin saw large numbers of geese migrating to the unknown north, at a high latitude, indicating land there. He notes that no matter how far north the explorer goes, he always finds the polar bear ahead of him. No matter how far north these bears are met, they are always on their way north.
At latitude 82, Kane found butterflies, bees and flies, as well as wolves, foxes, bears, geese, ducks, water fowls and partridges. A strange fact all explorers observe is that animals do not migrate south to escape the cold Arctic winter, but instead go north.
Commander McClure explored Banks Land and found immense quantities of trees thrown in layers by glacious action, which evidently brought them from the north. In one ravine lie found a pile of trees closely packed, to a height of forty feet. While some wood was petrified, much of it was of recent origin. These trees were found far beyond the latitude where trees grow.
Nansen was puzzled by this driftwood which is continually found along the Greenland coast. He said that as far north as latitude 86 degrees he found such driftwood.
Gardner says that it is the unanimous testimony of explorers that "the further north you go, the more animal life there is, a complete proof that there is in the far north a great asylum of refuge where every creature can breed in peace and with plenty of food. And from that region must come also those evidences of vegetable life that explorers have repeatedly seen, the red pollen of plants that drifts out on favorable breezes and colors whole icebergs and glacier sides with a ruddy tinge, those seeds and buds and branches, and most impressive of all, those representatives of races of animals that yet live on in the interior, although they have disappeared from the outside of the earth. (Gardner here refers to mammoths found frozen in ice.)
"What a veritable paradise of animal and vegetable life that must be! And perhaps for some sort of human life, also, it is a land of perpetual ease and peace. The Eskimo people who are still living there will have been modified from the type that we see on the outer surface. Their life will be easier, as they will have no cold climates and food scarcities to contend with. Like the inhabitants of some of our tropical islands, they will reflect the ease of their lives in easy going and lovable temperaments. They will be . . . caters of many fruits and other vegetable products unknown to us. When we penetrate their land we shall find growing almost to the inner edge of the polar opening those trees of which we have seen so many drifting trunks and branches. We shall find, nesting perhaps in those trees, perhaps in the rocks around the inner polar regions the knots and swans and wild geese and ross gulls that we have so often seen in the preceding pages, flying to the north to escape the rigors of climate which we in our ignorance have for so long supposed to be worse in the north than elsewhere."
Speaking of Nansen, who reached further north than any othcr explorcr, Ottmar Kaub comments:
"Marshall B. Gardner was right when lie wrote his book in 1920. On August 3, 1894, Dr. Fridtjof Nansen was tile first man in history to reach the interior of the earth. Dr. Nansen got lost and admitted it. He was surprised at the warm weather there. When he found a fox track, he knew he was lost.
"How could a fox track be there, he wondered. Had he known that he had entered the opening that leads to the hollow interior of the earth and that this was the reason why, the further north he went, the warmer it became, he would have found not only fox tracks but later tropical birds and other animals, and finally the human inhabitants of this `land beyond the Pole,' into which Admiral Byrd penetrated for 1,700 miles by plane and which completely mystified him."
Polar Warming Curvature Anomalies Ring Around the Opening
Circular, Compacted as if Linear Mammoth Icebergs from the Inner Earth
Pravda Article Aurora Australis Marks The Spot
Broken Auroral Ring Radarsat