On the existence of ice in the Arctic basin - Dr. Nansen spent two and one half years
in the Arctic, and
concluded that the ice there did not build - up or freeze there. The Arctic
is one and a half times the size of the USA, and over most of the area there is
an accumulation of several meters of pack ice and icebergs. This accumulation begs
explanation, even considering that there are open polar seas on the Siberian
side near the opening, above the New Siberian Islands. There are even vast
layers of fresh water that just sits on the surface above the salty water,
several meters deep. While it is said that the process of freezing at exttremely
low temperatures sqeezes out the salt from sea water, the ocean water of the
Arctic is hardly cold like this- in fact, even in the extremely high
latitudes, the Arctic ocean water is warmer than the water of the North Atlantic. And the ice constantly flows out towards Greenland and
Iceland (just ask the Titanic), so the accumulated fresh water and fresh-water
ice has to be replenished.
Wherefrom? The Polar opening of the hollow portion, where rivers as wide as 30 miles drain from the Northern tip of the inner continents. There is not enough coasts with Fiords along the Arctic shores to provide this kind of accumulation.
By Dean De Lucia
From Bernard's book, The Hollow Earth, page 77:
But how can fresh water be found in the extreme north, where there is only
salty ocean water, and how can icebergs be formed of fresh water, not salt water?
The only explanation, as both Reed and Gardner point out, and as we shall see
below, is that this fresh water comes from rivers that arose in the Earth's
warmer interior, which, after they reach the
colder surface, suddenly freeze and turn into icebergs, which break off and fall
into the sea, producing the strange tidal waves that Arctic explorers have
observed in the far north, and which puzzled them. Both Reed and Gardner claim
that the temperature in the inside of the Earth is much more uniform than on the
outside, being warmer in winter and cooler in summer. There is adequate rainfall,
more than on the surface, but it is never cold enough to snow. It is an ideal
subtropical climate, which is free from the oppressive heat of the tropics, as
well as from the cold weather of the temperate zone. They also claim that the
north polar opening is larger than the south. They say that there exists a Land
of Paradise on the other side of the Mammoth Ice Barrier, which must be passed
before one reaches a warmer climate in the land that lies beyond the Pole, over
which Admiral Byrd flew.
Around the curve at the polar opening is another ring of ice, called the Great Massive Fresh Water Ice Pack or Ice Barrier. Here is where icebergs originate. Each winter this ring of ice is formed from fresh water which flows out from the inside of the Earth. During the winter months, billions of tons of free-flowing fresh water, coming from rivers inside the Earth and flowing toward the outside through the polar openings, freeze at their mouth and form mountains of fresh water ice, whose presence in this region would be inexplicable if the Earth was a solid sphere. In summer time, huge icebergs, miles long, break off and float to the outside of the Earth. They are composed of fresh water, when there could exist only salt water at the poles. Since this is the case and since all water on the outside of the Earth in these regions is salty, the fresh water of which these icebergs are composed must come from its interior.
Inside the icebergs, the mammoth and other huge tropical animals, believed to be of prehistoric origin because never seen on the Earth's surface, have been found in a perfect state of preservation.Some of them have been found to have green vegetation in their mouths and stomachs at the time they were suddenly frozen. The usual explanation is that these are prehistoric animals which lived in the Arctic region at the time when it had a tropical climate, and that the coming of the Ice Age, suddenly converted the Arctic from a tropical to a frigid zone and froze them before they had time to flee southward. The great ivory deposits from elephants, found in Siberia and islands of the north, are also explained in this way. Gardner, however, holds to an entirely different theory, which was supported by the observations of Admiral Byrd of a huge mammoth-like creature in the "land beyond the Pole," which he discovered. Gardner claims that mammoths are really animals now inhabiting the interior of the Earth, which have been carried to the surface by rivers and frozen inside of the ice that formed when the rivers reached the surface, forming glaciers and icebergs.
In Siberia, along the Lena River, there lie exposed on the soil and buried within it, the bones and tusks of millions of mammoths and mastodons. The consensus of scientific opinion is that they are prehistoric remains, and that the mammoth existed some 20,000 years ago, but as wiped out in the unknown catastrophe we now call the last
It was Schumachoff, a fisherman living in Tongoose, Siberia, who, in 1799, first discovered a complete mammoth frozen in a clear block of ice. Hacking it free, he removed its huge tusks and left the carcass of fresh meat to be devoured by wolves. Later an expedition was sent to examine it, and today its skeleton may be seen in the Museum of Natural History in Leningrad.
From The Hollow Earth, pages 111 - 117:
WHERE AND HOW ARE ICEBERGS FORMED?
Since icebergs are formed from fresh water, not salty ocean water, they could not be formed from the Arctic Ocean, but by some fresh body of water. However there is no fresh body of water in the polar region. Reed's theory is that icebergs are formed from rivers coming from the interior of the earth and flowing toward the surface through the polar opening. When they reach the cold exterior they freeze, while more water passes over the frozen part and freezes too, forming mountains of ice. With the coining of summer, these big masses of ice are thawed loose and break off, falling into the sea and producing the mysterious tidal waves observed in the far north. Reed says:
"It is simply out of the question for an iceberg to form in any location yet discovered. On the other hand, the interior of the earth - back from the mouth of rivers or canyons being warmer, is just suited for the formation of icebergs. The mouth freezes first, and the river, continuing to flow to the ocean, overflows the mouth, and freezes for months, until spring. As the warm weather of summer advances, and, owing to the warmth of the earth, the bergs are thawed loose, and water from the rains in the interior rushes up, and they are shoved into the ocean, and tidal waves started.
"Note the difference. On the outside of the earth, the whole length of a stream is frozen, and the farther inland the harder the freezing, while in the interior of the earth (at the polar opening) only the mouth is frozen. In the interior of the earth, there is not only plenty of water to produce icebergs, but plenty to shove them into the ocean.
"For the last three hundred years a fairly steady stream of explorers have been trying to reach the Pole-Arctic and Antarctic-and no one has ever seen an iceberg leaving its original location and plunging into the ocean. Isn't it strange that no one thought of asking about their place of origin?"
In support of the theory that icebergs, made from fresh water, cannot be formed on the outside of the earth and must come from fresh water rivers in its interior, Reed quotes Bernacchi who, writing on his observations in the Antarctic, says: "There was less than two inches of rainfall in eleven and one half months, and while it snowed quite frequently, it never fell to any great depth. Under such conditions, where would materials be found to produce an iceberg? Yet the greatest one on earth is there - one so large that it is called the Great Ice Barrier, rather than an iceberg - being over four hundred miles long and fifty miles wide. It is grounded in two thousand one hundred feet of water, and extends from eighty to two hundred feet above water." Reed comments: "Now it would be impossible for this iceberg to form in a country having practically no rain or snow. As icebergs are made from frozen water, and there is no water to freeze, it evidently was formed at some place other than where it now is. The iceberg itself, being of fresh water, lies in an ocean of salt water.
"How do I know that the great ice barrier came from the interior of the earth? Or from the kind of river described? First, it could not come from the exterior of the earth, since icebergs are not formed there. That river must have been 2,500 feet deep, fifty miles across and from four to five hundred miles long, for these are the present dimensions of the iceberg. The river had to be straight or the iceberg could not pass out without breaking. It passed through a comparatively level country because the surface is still flat. Another proof that the interior of the earth is level near the Antarctic entrance is that many of the icebergs found in the Antarctic are long and slim. They are called `ice tongues,' which indicates that they came out of rivers running nearly on a level. The icebergs found in the Arctic, on the other hand, are more chunky, indicating that they come from a more mountainous country, where the fall of streams is more abrupt, causing the icebergs to be shorter and thicker.
"When Bernacchi was voyaging in the Antarctic, he wrote: `During the next two days we passed some thousands of icebergs, as many as ninety being counted from the bridge at one time. There was very little variety of form among them, all being very large and bounded by perpendicular cliffs. There was a large quantity of fresh water at the surface, derived from the number of icebergs.'
"How does this account accord with your notions of how icebergs are formed in a country where Bernacchi reports less than two inches of rainfall in the whole year, and but small quantities of snow? Where is the water to come from that will produce such great quantities of icebergs averaging a thousand feet in thickness, and many of them several miles long? Those icebergs were on their way north - never to return - yet the ocean will always be filled with them, as others will come from the place where they came. Where is that place? There is no rain or melted snow to furnish the water to freeze into an iceberg. Icebergs can come from only one place - the INTERIOR Of the earth.
TIDAL WAVES. Reed here repeats the description of Arctic tidal waves by various explorers. They lift the ice of the great ice fields to great heights and can be heard for miles in the distance before they reach the ship and for miles after they pass beyond the ship. Arctic explorers describe these tidal waves as follows: "Giant blocks pitched and rolled as though controlled by in-visible hands, and the vast compressing bodies shrieked a shrill and horrible sound that curdled the blood. On came the frozen waves. Seams ran and rattled across them with a thundering boom, while we watched their terrible progress." Reed says: "These tidal waves are caused by some tremendous agency and I can think of nothing more powerful than the plunging of an iceberg into the ocean. The great frequency of these powerful tidal waves seems to exclude the possibility of their being caused by underwater volcanic eruptions."
The following is also from Bernard's book, The Hollow Earth, pages 105 - 106:
On this subject Reed says: "When it can be shown that conditions are such that no Arctic icebergs (composed of fresh water) can be formed in the far north on the earth's outer surface, they must be formed in the interior. If the material that produces colored snow is a vegetable matter (which the analysis shows), and is supposed to be a blossom or the pollen of a plant, when none such grows in the vicinity of the Arctic Ocean, then it must grow in the interior of the earth; for if it grows elsewhere on earth, then the snow would be colored in other locations as well (as it is in the vicinity of the polar opening) , which does not seem to be the case. The dust, so annoying in the Arctic Ocean, is also produced by volcanic eruptions. Being light, it is carried far away by the wind, and when it falls on ships, it is disagreeable. When it falls on the snow it produces black snow. When analyzed it is found to consist of carbon and iron, supposed to come from a burning volcano. Where is that volcano? No record or account of any near the North Pole is found; and if it be elsewhere, why does the dust fall in the Arctic Ocean?
"Various explorers report large rocks and boulders on and imbedded in the icebergs. These boulders are either cast there by the exploding volcano or they are scraped up as the bergs slide down the rivers in the interior of the earth.
The dust in the Arctic is so heavy that it floats in great clouds. It colors the snow black; and it falls on ships in such abundance that it is a source of irritation. Nansen declares that it was one of his principal reasons for wanting to go home. If the earth is solid, there is no answer to this perplexing problem. But if the earth be hollow, the eruptions of volcanoes in the interior can easily account for the dust."
Finally, from The Hollow Earth, pages 110 - 111
WHAT PRODUCES COLORED SNOW IN THE ARCTIC?
Why is the snow colored in the Arctic regions? The snow has been analyzed and the red, green and yellow have been found to contain vegetable matter, presumably a flower, or the pollen of a plant. From where did it come? A flower that produced pollen sufficient to permeate the air with such density that it colored the snow, which require a vast territory - millions of acres - to grow it. Where is that to be found? It must be near the North Pole, for, if it grew elsewhere, colored snow would be found at other locations, and not be confined to the Arctic regions. As no such flowering plant is known on the earth's surface, we must look elsewhere.
"The interior of the earth is the only spot that will furnish us with an answer to the question. As the colors fall at different seasons, we may presume that the flowers mature at these seasons. It is also easy to find out where the black snow, frequently mentioned by the explorers, comes from. It comes out of an exploding volcano-of the kind that covered Nansen's ship with dust. All un-explained questions could be easily answered if one would believe that the earth is hollow. It is impossible to answer them under any other theory.
"Kane, in his first volume, page 44, says: `We passed the Crimson Cliffs at Sir John Ross in the forenoon of August 5th. The patches of red snow from which they derive their name could be seen clearly at the distance of ten miles from the coast. It had a fine deep rose hue.'
"Kane speaks of the red snow as if it had a regular season in which to appear - as he says, `if the snowy surface were more diffused, as it is no doubt earlier in the season.' In another place he speaks of the red snow being two weeks later than usual. Now taking the fact into account that the material that colors the snow is a vegetable matter, supposed to be the blossom or pollen of a plant, and that no such plant grows on earth, where does it come from? It must grow in the interior of the earth."
Sir Dr. Nansen on Arctic Pollen and Mud
Page 201: Wednesday, July 18th. " Went
on an excursion with Blessing in the forenoon to collect specimens of the brown
snow and ice. ... The upper surface of the floes is nearly everywhere a dirty,
brown color, or, at least, this sort of ice preponderates, while pure white
floes ... are rare. ...; but the specimens I took today consist, for the most
part, of mineral dust mingled with diatoms and other ingredients of organic
Dr. Nansen mentions in the footnotes that:
“ larger quantities of mud, however, are also often to be found on the ice ...
but are doubtlessly more directly connected with land ."
Page 488: " Siberian driftwood, ... as well as the mud found on the ice ... even when we were as far North as 86*."
The orthodox explanation for icebergs is that they are large segments of fresh water ice broken or carved from glaciers. Principal sources are the fiord glaciers of Greenland and the islands of Northern Canada. Glaciers are masses of ice formed from snow and move from land to oceans. They are formed when the rate of snow accumulation exceeds the rate of melting and evaporation. Two points arise at this stage* There is very little precipitation in the polar regions, incompatible with the huge amounts of frozen salt-free water to be found there. Technically these are desert regions. The Great Ice Barrier in Antarctica is 400 miles by 50 miles !( Encyclopaedia Britannica)
Sea water on freezing can expel salt in the form of brine. After one year the sea ice is sufficiently sweet for drinking. (Macropaedia 1995 14:5
) Is this phenomenon related to the formation of icebergs? GARDNER (book 1) quotes from Barrington (book 1a) who quotes from a 1752 paper De
l'Origine des Monts de Glace dans la Mer du Nord to the effect that if sea water is exposed to the greatest degree of cold, it still preserves the taste of salt, so that the sweet transparent ice can never be formed from the
As both polar regions are not solid but communicate with a warmer region, we have ice from the "outside" (surface of earth) forming a barrier, continuing round the rim of the opening. These inner ice fields are patchy because of warmth from the interior. This heat from inside the earth would not be able to make the whole of the polar basin icefree, obviously. But we can see how it gives rise to clouds, mists, fog and vapour as it meets with freezing conditions at the polar regions.
In the case of water, with this reversed state of affairs we can see how a river of water from the earth's interior could enter the Arctic and Antarctic regions and freeze at the mouth, building up ice which could thaw loose in summer and wash into the ocean, forming icebergs. Obviously the mouth freezes first, on the outside, and ice is shoved into the ocean by liquid water from the inside. REED cites ice-tongues, frozen water in the shape of "rivers" in the Antarctic. Icebergs sometimes have embedded in them the remains of coniferous trees, and even once a mammoth. REED denotes one chapter to icebergs, and GARDNER just a few sentences. The subject of icebergs is a tricky one and we do not have enough information. What we do know is that there exists an open polar sea in the Arctic which has a huge volume of frozen fresh water floating in it, and we say this water comes from the interior.
By Sadek Adams
In July, Nansen made a number of observations on the formation of ice and came to the conclusion that the thickness of the Arctic ice is not attained by direct freezing as a result of cold weather. Only a little ice is formed at a time, and the great hummocks and floes of which we read are simply formed by the ice packing and mass after mass being frozen up into great aggragates.
Marshall B Gardner, A Journey to the Earth's Interior, page 172.
From A Journey to the Earth's Interior, By Marshall B.Gardner:
By August first he had reached a point near the Petowik glacier which lies just northward of the "Crimson Cliffs" of Sir John Ross. This is so called from the fact that on the snow clad cliffs and glacier surfaces at this point Sir John Ross, in 1818, discovered a red deposit which had fallen about and mixed with the snow, giving it a reddish color which was pretty widely distributed. What was it? For a long time this was a mystery, but it was at last proven to be of vegetable origin: now, the point to be taken up in detail later is simply this: where could any vegetable matter, either a pollen from larger plants or a very humble sort of red mossy or spore like growth, come from? There is no other case in the whole realm of botany that would justify us in assuming that a plant can grow on ice bergs or on snow. A plant requires certain elements and certain temperatures. Evidently, somewhere those factors must be in existence. Where, we shall see later. [Hint: The opening to the hollow portion of the Earth]
Polar Warming Curvature Anomalies Ring Around the Opening
Circular, Compacted as if Linear Mammoth Chapter Four from Gardner
Radarsat Aurora Australis Marks The Spot
ZR-1 Greenland Vikings Location of Polar Orifice
Antartic Ozone Broken Auroral Ring Frobisher Map
Hollow Orbs Home